研究生英语科技论文写作 - 中国大学mooc

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Unit 3 The Abstract

Scientific abstracts and keywords随堂测验

1、Which of the following is NOT a scientific abstract?
    A、It is an overview of a scientific paper.
    B、It indicates the structure of the paper.
    C、It reduces long research work to essential elements.
    D、It is usually designed to be standing alone.



2、The scientific abstract aims to________
    A、stand alone as a mini-text.
    B、provide a short summary of a research.
    C、guide readers with a reading roadmap.
    D、all the above.



3、What are the two primary types of abstracts?
    A、Descriptive and Interpretive.
    B、Descriptive and informative.
    C、Informative and objective.
    D、Interpretive and objective.



Effective reading of scientific abstracts随堂测验

1、Reading a scientific abstract involves_______
    A、understanding its structure and obtaining key information.
    B、understanding its content and obtaining key information.
    C、understanding its contribution and its implication.
    D、understanding its structure and its content.



2、What information can abstract-scanning reveal?
    A、The discipline and journal the paper is from.
    B、The estimated number of words.
    C、The type of abstracts .
    D、All the above.



3、Which of the following is NOT mentioned?
    A、What is the purpose of the study?
    B、What problem does the study try to solve?
    C、What solution does the paper offer?
    D、What is the scientific objective of the study?



Creating effective scientific abstracts随堂测验

1、Which of the following is NOT to create an effective abstract?
    A、Functions of effective abstracts.
    B、Features of good abstracts.
    C、Maximum number of 300 words.
    D、Key words selection.



2、What functions does an effective abstract have?
    A、Presenting complex information in a clear and concise way.
    B、Helping to conduct research.
    C、Condensing information to a short format.
    D、All the above.



3、Which of the following is NOT a scientific abstract?
    A、Be self-contained.
    B、Be inclusive of the key information of the original work.
    C、Be self-explanatory.
    D、Be well-organized paragraph.



4、Which of the following is CORRECT?
    A、Past simple tense is often used to state the background information.
    B、Present perfect tense is often used to mention the focus of the study.
    C、Past simple tense is often used to describe the methodology.
    D、Present perfect tense is often used to indicate results and findings.



5、What does ABC of a good abstract refer to?
    A、Accuracy, brevity and clarity.
    B、Accuracy, briefness and coherence.
    C、Accuracy, brevity and cohesion.
    D、Accuracy, briefness and clarity.



Three steps to an effective scientific abstract随堂测验

1、Which of the following strategy is NOT mentioned?
    A、Structuring the abstract.
    B、Preparing to write the abstract.
    C、Reading relevant abstract.
    D、Polishing the abstract.



2、How many keywords are recommended?
    A、3-6 keywords.
    B、5-10 keywords.
    C、2-5 keywords.
    D、6-10 keywords.



3、What questions can introduce the background?
    A、What is the purpose of the study?
    B、What is the scope of the study?
    C、What implication does the study have?
    D、What problem is the study trying to solve?



4、Which of the following is NOT to explain the methods?
    A、What is the research design?
    B、What materials and techniques did the research use?
    C、What statistics did the research analyze?
    D、What procedures did the research follow?



Don'ts in writing scientific abstracts随堂测验

1、Which of the following is Mentioned?
    A、Don’t provide lengthy background information.
    B、Don’t use syntactically complex sentences.
    C、Don’t use present perfect tense.
    D、Don’t provide research implication.



2、New information should be________
    A、presented.
    B、avoided.
    C、implied.
    D、explained.



3、The maximum sentence length is ________
    A、18 words.
    B、20 words.
    C、25 words.
    D、15 words.



4、References should be ________
    A、explained.
    B、presented.
    C、implied.
    D、avoided.



Quiz for Unit 3

1、Scientific abstracts can be classified into different types according to their purposes and structures. Read the following features of scientific abstracts and group them into proper types. You can add more features to the list. A. Briefly summarizes the background, methods, results and conclusions of the full-length paper. B. Informs the audience of all essential points of the paper. C. Usually very short, about 50─100 words. D. Contains one paragraph with no explicit subheadings. E. Most likely used for sciences, engineering or psychology reports. F. If it is a research paper, includes the background of the paper, sometimes the methods, but never the results or conclusions. G. Contains several paragraphs with explicit subheadings. H. Most likely used for humanities and social science papers or psychology essays. I. Concise, usually 10% of the length of the entire paper, often just one paragraph. J. Most likely used for medical science papers. K. ... L. ... Descriptive Abstracts include: (输入对应的大写字母,按字母顺序,且字母中间没有标点符号或空格,如:ABCE)



2、Scientific abstracts can be classified into different types according to their purposes and structures. Read the following features of scientific abstracts and group them into proper types. You can add more features to the list. A. Briefly summarizes the background, methods, results and conclusions of the full-length paper. B. Informs the audience of all essential points of the paper. C. Usually very short, about 50─100 words. D. Contains one paragraph with no explicit subheadings. E. Most likely used for sciences, engineering or psychology reports. F. If it is a research paper, includes the background of the paper, sometimes the methods, but never the results or conclusions. G. Contains several paragraphs with explicit subheadings. H. Most likely used for humanities and social science papers or psychology essays. I. Concise, usually 10% of the length of the entire paper, often just one paragraph. J. Most likely used for medical science papers. K. ... L. ... Informative Abstracts include: (输入对应的大写字母,按字母顺序,且字母中间没有标点符号或空格,如:ABCE)



3、Scientific abstracts can be classified into different types according to their purposes and structures. Read the following features of scientific abstracts and group them into proper types. You can add more features to the list. A. Briefly summarizes the background, methods, results and conclusions of the full-length paper. B. Informs the audience of all essential points of the paper. C. Usually very short, about 50─100 words. D. Contains one paragraph with no explicit subheadings. E. Most likely used for sciences, engineering or psychology reports. F. If it is a research paper, includes the background of the paper, sometimes the methods, but never the results or conclusions. G. Contains several paragraphs with explicit subheadings. H. Most likely used for humanities and social science papers or psychology essays. I. Concise, usually 10% of the length of the entire paper, often just one paragraph. J. Most likely used for medical science papers. K. ... L. ... Structured Abstracts include: (输入对应的大写字母,按字母顺序,且字母中间没有标点符号或空格,如:ABCE)



4、Effective reading of a scientific abstract involves identifying its structure. Though different disciplines and journals may show slight differences in their requirements for the format of abstracts, the major components of a scientific abstract remain almost the same and are presented in the same sequence. Read the following disordered statements and reorder them into a well-organized abstract. Explain the reasons for your arrangement of the statements. A. Participants first learned stimuli by either restudying or engaging in retrieval practice. Twenty-four hours later, we induced stress in half of the participants and assessed subsequent memory performance. B. We aimed to determine whether a highly effective learning technique could strengthen memory against the negative effects of stress. C. More than a decade of research has supported a robust consensus: Acute stress impairs memory retrieval. D. Participants who learned by restudying demonstrated the typical stress-related memory impairment, whereas those who learned by retrieval practice were immune to the deleterious effects of stress. E. These results suggest that the effects of stress on memory retrieval may be contingent on the strength of the memory representations themselves. F. To bolster memory, we used retrieval practice, or the act of taking practice tests. (请按照你的排序,直接输入大写字母,字母之间没有空格或标点符号)



Assignment for Unit 3

1、When composing a scientific abstract, you should be very careful about language use and style, including the correct use of words, tenses, sentence patterns, terminologies and other aspects. Read the following sentences from abstracts, identify any incorrect use of language and make suitable revisions. 1) This paper discusses/examines three issues. The first issue is X. The second and third issues are Y and Z. 2) Introduced status for optical fiber communication at first. Then described some enabling technologies of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). 3) I examined the use of deep neural networks (DNNs) in the context of photo editing. 4) According to Author et al. (2010), there is a significant relationship between X and Y. 5) This motivated us to explore the use of DNNs in the context of photo editing. 6) Clocks with carefully controlled phases tapped from a local ring oscillator are driven to a bank of input samplers to convert the serial bit stream into parallel data and the overlap of multiple-phased clocks is used to synchronize the multiplexing of the parallel data onto the transmission line. 7) Due to global initialized data, immediate values, address calculations, redundancy in external input, etc.; the same value is used at the same program point as much as 80% of the time. Please identify the possible problems in the sentences above, and then try to offer revisions for each of them.



Unit 2 The Title

Scientific titles and author informaiton (1)随堂测验

1、______ present a miniature of the whole paper.
    A、Title, key words and authors
    B、Title, abstract and authors
    C、Title, key words and abstract
    D、Title, abstract and introduction



2、2. What will be freely accessible to readers online?
    A、Title
    B、Key words
    C、Abstract
    D、All the above



3、3. What titles are recommended?
    A、Objective and self-explanatory titles.
    B、Informative and objective titles.
    C、Descriptive and informative titles.
    D、Descriptive and self-explanatory titles.



4、4. Which of the following is NOT the correct author order?
    A、The first author is the lead author.
    B、The first author designs the research.
    C、The first author is the principal investigator.
    D、The first author is responsible for most of the work.



Scientific titles and author information (2)随堂测验

1、What are the scientific title features?
    A、It is short in length.
    B、It is dense in information.
    C、It helps easy retrieval in computerized searches.
    D、All the above.



2、2. Which of the following strategy is NOT recommended?
    A、To scan the title searching for key words.
    B、To translate the title to readers’ first language.
    C、To break the title into pieces of information.
    D、To analyze the grammatical structure of the title.



3、3. What questions are asked to paraphrase the title?
    A、What are the key words in the title?
    B、Which part of the title is emphasized?
    C、How do readers expect the research content?
    D、All the above.



Creating strong scientific titles随堂测验

1、Which of the following is NOT explaining the importance of the title?
    A、It is a critical component of the manuscript.
    B、It affects the first impression of the editor or the reader.
    C、It determines to increase or lose readers’ interest in reading the paper.
    D、It can be considered as a miniature of the whole paper.



2、2. When is a good title often written?
    A、At the beginning of the paper writing.
    B、After the main body of paper is finished.
    C、After the entire paper is finished.
    D、After the abstract is finished.



3、3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a good scientific title feature?
    A、It highlights the structure of a research paper.
    B、It is specific but informative.
    C、It is typically within 10-12 words.
    D、It uses descriptive terms or phrases.



4、4. Which of the following is NOT a clear and persuasive title?
    A、It raises questions about the paper and take notes of the answers.
    B、It identifies the most important aspects of the answers.
    C、It rephrases the working title in detailed phrases.
    D、It drafts a working title with the key words.



Six steps to a strong scientific title随堂测验

1、What questions can be asked about the paper?
    A、What is the paper specifically about?
    B、What is the research design and what methods were used?
    C、What are the major findings?
    D、All the above.



2、2. A working title uses _______
    A、one sentence.
    B、one main sentence and one relative clause.
    C、more than one sentence.
    D、one compound sentence.



3、3. What information can be deleted?
    A、Extra words distracting the title’s pivot.
    B、Redundant words prolonging the title.
    C、Vague expressions diverting the title’s highlight.
    D、All the above.



Don'ts in writing scientific titles随堂测验

1、Which of the following don’t is mentioned?
    A、Don’t be broad or vague.
    B、Don’t use idiosyncratic abbreviation.
    C、Don’t use waste word like a study /research on.
    D、All the above.



2、2. What will diminish the seriousness of the science study?
    A、A catchy phrase or humor injection.
    B、A brief and descriptive title.
    C、A well-structured abstract.
    D、A review of the background information.



3、3. What title format is suggested?
    A、Construct the title with one sentence.
    B、Capitalize the first alphabet of all words.
    C、Follow the practice of the target journal.
    D、Integrate a title and a subtitle.



Quiz for Unit 2

1、As a reader of research papers, titles are important since they give you a quick indication of the content of a paper. Titles are also useful for you when you write your own research paper. Decide which of the following are reasons that a title is useful as a writer of a research paper.
    A、① A title is in a privileged place in the text, and it draws the reader’s most complete attention. Taking advantage of that fact, the writer can use the title’s privileged position to express ideas clearly and to articulate an argument.
    B、② A title chosen early in the writing process can help writers stay on track during the writing process.
    C、③ Creating a title at the end of the writing process can function as a check on the quality of the research paper.
    D、④ If coming up with a title is difficult, it may indicate to the writer that the essay’s main idea or point is unclear.



2、A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. 1. A. Single-Particle Mapping of Nonequilibrium Nanocrystal Transformations √ B. Mapping of Nonequilibrium Nanocrystal Transformations



3、2. A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. A. A Study on the Formation of Peak Rings in Large Impact Craters √B. The Formation of Peak Rings in Large Impact Craters



4、3. A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. √A. A Synthetic Pathway for the Fixation of Carbon Dioxide in Vitro B. Fixation of Carbon Dioxide in Vitro: Not Blowing in the Wind



5、A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. 4. A. An Experimental Observation of a Pair of Spin-Polarized Fermi Arc Surface States on the Surface of the Dirac Semimetal Na3Bi at Its Native Chemical Potential √ B. Observation of Fermi Arc Surface States in a Topological Metal



6、A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. 5. A. A Highly Active and Stable IrOx/SrIrO3 Catalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction √B. A Novel Active and Stable IrOx/SrIrO3 Catalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction



7、A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. √ A. Observation of Quantum Shock Waves Created with Ultra-Compressed Slow Light Pulses in a Bose-Einstein Condensate B. Creating Quantum Shock Waves with Ultra-Compressed Slow Light Pulses in a Bose-Einstein Condensate



8、A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. 7, √ A. Highly efficient waveguide grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator B. Silicon-on-insulator for high-output waveguide grating couplers



9、A strong scientific title is descriptive, brief, specific, and accurate. It also uses key words that readers will search for. The title with the "√" before it is considered to be the better one. Decide whether the following choice is the correct one. 8. A. Effects of added calcium on salinity tolerance of tomato √ B. Calcium addition improves salinity tolerance of tomato



Unit 1 Introduction to Adademic Writing

What is academic writing?随堂测验

1、Compared with general English writing, academic writing tends to be more
    A、objective and impersonal
    B、logical
    C、formal
    D、all the above



2、The general structure of academic writing consists of
    A、an abstract, an introduction and a discussion
    B、an introduction, a result and a discussion
    C、an introduction, a body and a conclusion
    D、an abstract, a result and a conclusion



3、Which of the following is NOT a feature of academic text?
    A、Formality
    B、Recreational
    C、Complexity
    D、Accuracy



Efficient reading academic texts随堂测验

1、1. Which of the following is NOT a reading purpose at the before-reading stage?
    A、To gain evidence to support readers’ argument.
    B、To familiarize readers with the leading researchers
    C、To gain detailed understanding of the content.
    D、To locate answers to specific questions readers may have.



2、2. At the during-reading stage, what instructions about text scanning have NOT been mentioned?
    A、Read the first paragraph.
    B、Read the last paragraph.
    C、Read the opening sentence of other paragraphs.
    D、Read the middle sentence of other paragraphs



3、3. At the after-reading stage, what information about new words should be noted?
    A、Definition, part of speech, related phrases and derivatives.
    B、Definition, part of speech, related phrases and inflections.
    C、Definition, related phrases, derivatives and inflections.
    D、Definition, related phrases, inflections and sample sentences.



Writing good academic texts随堂测验

1、1. To accomplish good academic writing, writers should______
    A、support claims with evidence.
    B、be impersonal and be cautious.
    C、use nominalization
    D、All the above.



2、2. How do academic writers support their claims with evidence?
    A、Express their opinions about research findings freely.
    B、Express their arguments by referring to work done by relevant scholars.
    C、Express their understanding conservatively.
    D、Express their claims by exemplifying the research procedures.



3、3. Which of the following is NOT correct about nominalizations in academic writing?
    A、It helps to transform complex sentences into simple ones.
    B、It refers to the noun phrase construction.
    C、It enables writers to avoid stating something obvious in a simple way.
    D、It enables writers to choose the emphasis.



Strategies for good academic writing随堂测验

1、1. Which of the following is NOT correct about academic writing?
    A、It has an obvious audience.
    B、It has logical expression.
    C、It has a clear purpose.
    D、It has a linear structure.



2、2. The academic language can not be acquired through ______.
    A、simulation
    B、observation
    C、experiment
    D、study



3、3. What are the recommended procedures for writing academic texts?
    A、To think about subject academically
    B、Scan or skim relevant resources from library or internet
    C、Study and structure what you have selected
    D、All the above



Tips for academic writing随堂测验

1、1. Which of the following is NOT a tip for good academic writing?
    A、Make connections and establish a clear sense of direction.
    B、Be your readers’ guide.
    C、Present a well-structured essay.
    D、Use active voice to highlight the researchers’ contribution.



2、2. In terms of punctuation, which of the understanding is NOT correct?
    A、Punctuation aims to show where a reader pauses to take a breath.
    B、Punctuation aims to clarify the grammatical structure of sentences.
    C、Punctuation is closely connected with meaning.
    D、Punctuation can realize certain important syntactic structure.



3、3. What signpost expressions have been mentioned in lecture?
    A、moreover
    B、besides
    C、however
    D、all of the above



Quiz for Unit 1

1、Ideally, the application will save every single little change as soon as the user makes it, ___________, after each keystroke.
    A、nevertheless
    B、in other words
    C、in the same way
    D、as well as



2、Papers must be handed in by the deadline, ______________ they will not be graded.
    A、obviously
    B、otherwise
    C、as a result
    D、even though



3、There are some slight variations in temperature, but ________________ 26 to 27ºC should be expected.
    A、consequently
    B、otherwise
    C、as a result
    D、as a rule



4、There are three major advantages of the design, ________________ cheapness, simplicity and availability.
    A、for example
    B、for instance
    C、namely
    D、in other ways



5、Academic writing is relatively formal. In general this means that in an essay you should avoid the following:
    A、colloquial words and expressions (such as "stuff", "a lot of", "thing", "sort of")
    B、abbreviated forms (such as "can't", "doesn't", "shouldn't”)
    C、two word verbs (such as "put off", "bring up”)
    D、asking questions (such as “So why is this?”)



6、What are the main features of academic writing?
    A、Accuracy
    B、Brevity
    C、Complexity
    D、Formality



7、It is explicit in its signposting of the organization of the ideas in the text. As a writer of academic English, it is your responsibility to make it clear to your reader how various parts of the text are related. These connections can be made explicit by the use of different signaling words.



8、Currently the IMRAD(Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion) structure is dominant for publishing papers in many fields of science.



Unit 4 The introduction

Understanding an academic instroduction随堂测验

1、The introduction aims to ________
    A、lead readers from a general subject to a particular field.
    B、show how the study was undertaken.
    C、explain the contributions of the researchers.
    D、interpret the data implications.



2、Which of the following will NOT appear in Introduction?
    A、The tables and the figures.
    B、The explanation for the subject importance.
    C、The background information of the subject.
    D、The specific questions the author trying to answer.



3、What does a well-organized Introduction include?
    A、The statement of the problem.
    B、Earlier studies about the problem and research gaps.
    C、A new approach to be adopted.
    D、All the above.



Effective reading of scientific introductions随堂测验

1、What questions can help understand the study background?
    A、What earlier studies of this topic are there?
    B、What are the weaknesses of the existing study?
    C、What areas remain to be explored?
    D、All the above.



2、Which is NOT to evaluate the study importance?
    A、What is the research gap?
    B、In what theoretical ways is the research significant?
    C、In what practical ways is the research significant?
    D、Why is it necessary to conduct the research?



3、Which is NOT to explain the new approach?
    A、The author’s perspectives.
    B、The weaknesses of the earlier approach.
    C、The reasons for the author to use the approach.
    D、The advantages of the approach.



4、The paper organization is outlined_________
    A、in the middle of the introduction.
    B、at the beginning of the introduction.
    C、at the end of the introduction.
    D、none of the above.



Creating an effective academic Introduction随堂测验

1、Which is NOT to inform readers about the study?
    A、Sketch out the study background.
    B、Review the most pertinent literature.
    C、Present the numerical data.
    D、State the objectives and purposes of the study.



2、How to convince readers of the study importance?
    A、Highlight the importance of the study.
    B、State how the current research tackles the gap.
    C、State the advances the current research may generate.
    D、All the above.



3、Which will NOT appear in Introduction?
    A、To state briefly the methodology.
    B、To interpret the data implication.
    C、To indicate the potential outcomes.
    D、To outline the paper structure.



Strategies for writing an academic Introduction随堂测验

1、What is suggested to orient the reader?
    A、To review the general background information.
    B、To interpret briefly the research limitations.
    C、To review briefly the pertinent literature.
    D、To present selectively the important findings.



2、How to present the research problem clearly?
    A、Present the research gaps.
    B、Explain how the problems relate to existing studies.
    C、Interpret the significance of the study problem.
    D、Explain the significance to tackle the problems.



3、The essential part of the Introduction should be________
    A、the explanation of the significance of the study.
    B、the interpretation of the numerical data.
    C、the statement of the study limitations.
    D、the statement of the research objectives.



'Don'ts' in writing academic introductions随堂测验

1、Which don’t is NOT mentioned?
    A、Don’t include too much in literature review.
    B、Don’t omit the most pertinent literature review.
    C、Don’t make too humble or conservative claims.
    D、Don’t use vague terminology.



2、Imprecision and confusion are often caused by _________
    A、general discussion.
    B、vague terminology.
    C、ambitious interpretation.
    D、clear terminology.



3、Arguments should be presented _________
    A、in a brief but informative way.
    B、in a logical and informative way.
    C、in a simple and clear way.
    D、in a simple but logical way.



4、Which of the following statement is CORRECT?
    A、Abbreviations are recommended for its space saving.
    B、Specialized terms are avoided for its ambiguity.
    C、Abbreviations aren’t used before they are defined.
    D、Leave room for criticism of the study limitation.



Quiz for Unit 4

1、Read the following expression chosen from academic introductions, and identify what part of an introduction it refers to:However, little work has been undertaken on the behavior of O/W emulsions under extreme pressure conditions.
    A、Problems with existing studies
    B、Background of the study
    C、Existing studies on the problem
    D、Research contents



2、Read the following expression chosen from academic introductions, and identify what part of an introduction it refers to:The increasing pollution of ground water resources by nitrites due to the anthropogenic activities from agriculture is receiving worldwide attention.
    A、Background of the study
    B、Significance of the study of that problem
    C、Description of the skeleton of the research
    D、Existing studies on the problem



3、Read the following expression chosen from academic introductions, and identify what part of an introduction it refers to:The current research aims to demonstrate that a moral incentive presented in terms of ideals rather than obligations stimulates more favorable attitudes among advantaged group members toward social equality issues, including affirmative action.
    A、Description of the skeleton of the research
    B、Significance of the study of that problem
    C、Background of the study
    D、Research objectives



4、Read the following expression chosen from academic introductions, and identify what part of an introduction it refers to:The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section II gives a general description of NOMA with SIC. Then Section III details the proposed iterative method for spectrum optimization. Simulation results are given in Section IV, and Section V concludes the paper.
    A、Problems with existing studies
    B、Description of the skeleton of the research
    C、Existing studies on the problem
    D、Research contents



5、Read the following expression chosen from academic introductions, and identify what part of an introduction it refers to:Therefore, it is of great importance to accurately monitor nitrite for public health, and food industries.
    A、Problems with existing studies
    B、Description of the skeleton of the research
    C、Research contents
    D、Significance of the study of that problem



6、Bertran et al. (2005) ______other disadvantages like code bloating and maintainability problems
    A、described
    B、claimed
    C、argued
    D、proposed



7、Shi, Johansson, and Hong (2013)_____the consensus point within the non-empty intersection of different convex sets
    A、argued
    B、computed
    C、debated
    D、handled



8、Morgan (2010)_____a residual CD monitoring method by using amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot
    A、described
    B、presented
    C、dealt with
    D、demonstrated



9、A well-written Introduction usually follows a clear logic. It often begins with the general background, followed by gaps in the research, specific questions addressed in the paper, and new approaches adopted, and ends with the research objectives of the study. Reorganize the different parts of the following Introduction. (请按照你的排序,直接输入大写字母,字母之间没有空格或标点符号) A. Growing interest in WPCs has been established by increasing numbers of publications including research papers, text books, review articles and patents. The competitiveness, performance and appropriateness of wood fibers employed as reinforcements in WPCs have been explored by considering the roles of surface modifications and fiber properties on the mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of WPCs. B. However, a review of the available literature indicates that an insightful understanding of how the properties of wood fibres, surface modification, polymer matrix and compounding technique influence the interface and functional properties of WPCs has not been gained. C. Finally, the implications of the findings of this study for the development of design and materials selection criteria for fabricating WPC parts are discussed in an attempt to ensure an efficient sustainable materials and process management practice. D. Research on wood polymer composites (WPCs) is attracting wider attention because stringent government environmental regulations are compelling industries employing inorganic fillers as reinforcements in polymer composites to search for less expensive, renewable and biodegradable alternative materials. E. In an attempt to increase the competitiveness of WPCs for industrial applications, the present work identifies and elucidates various factors influencing their functional performance by analyzing the associated interfacial bonding mechanisms and the functional properties. (请按照你的排序,直接输入大写字母,字母之间没有空格或标点符号,如:ABCE)



Unit 5 The materials and methods

Reading about the materials and methods随堂测验

1、The Materials and Methods section aims to show________
    A、how the research was completed.
    B、what specific procedures the research follows.
    C、how research data were collected.
    D、what implication the research has.



2、What could be found in this section?
    A、What techniques, analytical methods or approaches were adopted.
    B、What samples were prepared and how they were prepared.
    C、How the experiment was designed.
    D、All the above.



3、Important features include________
    A、accuracy.
    B、clarity.
    C、adequacy.
    D、All the above.



4、What can evaluate the competency of Methods and Materials?
    A、What procedures does the experiment design?
    B、Can the experiment design generate valid findings?
    C、Where and when was the study carried out?
    D、How the data were collected and analyzed?



Effective reading of the Materials and Methods section随堂测验

1、What will effective Materials & Methods inform readers of?
    A、experimental materials and results
    B、experimental design and procedures.
    C、experiment discussion and results
    D、experiment importance and gap.



2、Which is the second reading strategy?
    A、To identify the description of the materials.
    B、To identify the experiment procedure.
    C、To identify the methodologies employed.
    D、To identify the experiment design.



3、The experiment procedures should be described _________
    A、in detailed and sequential detail.
    B、in adequate and succinct detail.
    C、in sequential and succinct detail.
    D、in adequate and detailed detail.



4、_________ can facilitate the understanding of experiment.
    A、A table
    B、A figure
    C、A chart
    D、A diagram



Creating a concise and adequate Materials and Methods section随堂测验

1、What information does Methods and Materials contain?
    A、A description of the samples and experiment design.
    B、A description of the experiment procedures.
    C、An overview of the quantification and analysis.
    D、All the above.



2、The Methods and Materials is usually written________
    A、with simple present tense.
    B、with present perfect tense.
    C、with simple past tense.
    D、with past perfect tense.



3、The passive voice is used to ________
    A、display objectivity.
    B、display highlight.
    C、show subjectivity.
    D、show seriousness.



4、Previous methodology should ________
    A、be described in considerable detail.
    B、be indicated by a reference.
    C、be highlighted in detail.
    D、be presented concisely.



Strategies for writing a scientific Materials and Methods section随堂测验

1、It is necessary to list the chemical and physical properties of all samples .



2、The Materials and Methods section is usually straightforward and inclusive of necessary details.



3、The Materials and Methods section should conform to the requirements of your target journal.



4、It is wise to present the Materials and Methods section in a logical and chronological order.



'Don'ts' in writing a Materials and Methods section随堂测验

1、Adequate and necessary procedures should be presented for readers to __________ the study.
    A、result
    B、replicate
    C、justify
    D、take



2、The __________ of the procedures should be saved for the Discussion section.
    A、justification
    B、way
    C、result
    D、problem



3、Don’t put __________ of the study in the Materials and Methods section.
    A、forward
    B、up
    C、results
    D、anything



4、It is unnecessary to describe basic procedures in great __________.
    A、power
    B、structure
    C、challenge
    D、detail



5、Published methods should be used with __________.
    A、acknowledgement
    B、result
    C、reason
    D、justification



Quiz for Unit 5

1、The experiments ______(carry out) in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (2000) of the World Medical Association and the protocols approved by the Institutional Research Review Board at the hospital.
    A、carry out
    B、carried out
    C、was carried out
    D、were carried out



2、Spontaneous dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery (sI-CAD)_______ an important cause of ischemic stroke in young adults.
    A、was
    B、is
    C、are
    D、were



3、For the second trial, the apparatus was covered by a sheet of plastic. __________________ that this modification would reduce the amount of scattering.
    A、We believe
    B、I believe
    C、It was believed
    D、It is believed



4、The chemical compositions of the four ashes, obtained ______ EDX data, are shown in Fig. 1.
    A、from
    B、by
    C、at
    D、between



5、The phase constitutions _________ these ashes were investigated using X-ray diffraction.
    A、on
    B、for
    C、of
    D、at



6、Transmittance spectra of the heat reflector were measured __________ the wavelength range of 300 nm to 2000 nm at normal incidence.
    A、in
    B、on
    C、for
    D、by



7、Then the specimens were measured during the second run with the same temperature program as ___________.
    A、before
    B、above
    C、said
    D、mentioned



8、Security vulnerability testing uses the simulation of attacks and other kinds of penetration testing __________ to compromise the security of a system.
    A、attempted
    B、attempt
    C、attempting
    D、to attempt



9、Vulnerability is characteristic of a system without _________ a specified class of security breaches would not be possible.
    A、which
    B、that
    C、it
    D、this



10、The final products obtained were washed with deionized water three times, _________in an oven at 80℃.
    A、dried
    B、dry
    C、and then dried
    D、and dried



Assignment for Unit 5

1、Compare the fllowing two Materials samples and judge which version is better. State in what ways the better version is more acceptable in academic writing. A. This research was performed in Rome. A number of consecutive positive blood cultures obtained from patients were included in this study. 28 blood samples were collected and inoculated in BD BACTECTM Plus Aerobic/F culture vials and incubated in the automated system BD BACTECTM FX, whereas 42 samples were collected and inoculated in Oxoid Signal Blood Culture System Medium (OXOID S.p.A). Only monomicrobial cultures were selected. B. This research was performed at the Laboratory of Microbiology of “Umberto I” Hospital in Rome. A total of 70 consecutive positive blood cultures, obtained from patients of the Department of “Anesthesiology and Intensive Care” and “Internal Medicine” of the same hospital in the period from April to September 2015, were included in this study. 28 blood samples were collected and inoculated in BD BACTECTM Plus Aerobic/F culture vials and incubated in the automated system BD BACTECTM FX, whereas 42 samples were collected and inoculated in Oxoid Signal Blood Culture System Medium (OXOID S.p.A). Only monomicrobial cultures were selected.



Unit 6 The results and discussion

Descriptive results and interpretive discussion随堂测验

1、The Results can be presented in ________________.
    A、chronological order
    B、logical account
    C、significance and implication
    D、separate presentation



2、The tables and figures should be constructed to deliver a ________________.
    A、describe main data
    B、logical account
    C、chronological order
    D、significance and implication



3、The combined or ________________ of Results and Discussion varies for different journals.
    A、significance and implication
    B、logical account
    C、describe main data
    D、separate presentation



4、The Discussions highlights ________________ of the main findings.
    A、chronological order
    B、logical account
    C、significance and implication
    D、separate presentation



5、The Results ________________ collected from the study.
    A、significance and implication
    B、describe main data
    C、separate presentation
    D、logical account



Effective reading of the discussion随堂测验

1、The Discussion aims to explain the implication of the main findings.



2、The main function of Discussion is to make suggestions for future study.



3、The limitations of the research findings should be avoided in Discussion.



4、Considerations of future study directions might be expected in this section.



5、Wider implications, if there are any, should be presented at the end of this section.



Effective reading of the Results随堂测验

1、Texts and tables in this section should be complementary.



2、The text usually precedes tables or figures.



3、The table & figure titles and captions can help readers understand the data.



4、The sequence of data presentation lies in their tiers of significances.



5、The results that contradict the research aim should be deleted.



Strong results and discussion随堂测验

1、The results can be more understandable with the accompanying __________ of the results.
    A、interpretation
    B、limitation
    C、presentation
    D、information



2、The Results and Discussion should keep a steady focus and be concise and __________.
    A、active
    B、energetic
    C、informative
    D、bright



3、The Discussion can be used to acknowledge __________ or any alternative explanations.
    A、results
    B、functions
    C、opportunities
    D、limitations



4、The __________tense is suggested to detail the results the researcher obtained.
    A、pass
    B、past
    C、initiative
    D、active



5、The __________ tense is suggested to interpret the results obtained from the study.
    A、present
    B、pass
    C、passive
    D、past



Writing a strong discussion随堂测验

1、Reiteration of the results is an important part of the Discussion.



2、The Discussion organization can be a cluster map, an issue tree or numbering.



3、Both strengths and weaknesses of the study should be interpreted in Discussion.



4、Possible future research directions should be indicated at the beginning of Discussion.



5、The restatement of the major contribution should be presented at the end of the Discussion.



Three steps to writing up the Results随堂测验

1、The Results outline should follow the order of major topics the research focuses on.



2、The raw data should all be collected and presented in the Results.



3、The table or figure captions should be as specific and informative as possible.



4、Tables or Figures should be presented before they are mentioned in the text.



5、A simple explanation of the data in Results is acceptable.



'Don'ts' in writing strong results and disscussion随堂测验

1、Reference to the results from tables should be presented in the ________ tense.
    A、present
    B、processed
    C、descriptive
    D、subjective



2、Keep Results and Discussion scientific and leave ________ feelings out of it.
    A、descriptive
    B、assume
    C、subjective
    D、processed



3、The controlled experiment is to eliminate the need to ________ anything.
    A、descriptive
    B、assume
    C、subjective
    D、processed



4、The main data of the Results usually come from the ________ raw data.
    A、present
    B、subjective
    C、descriptive
    D、processed



5、The Results should be ________ while the Discussion should be interpretive.
    A、processed
    B、assume
    C、descriptive
    D、subjective



Quiz for Unit 6

1、The Results section is to _________
    A、present all the data collected from the study.
    B、report the most important findings of your study.
    C、interpret the data collected from the study.
    D、be correspond to the Introduction section.



2、Which is Not the function of the Results section?
    A、To discuss the key results
    B、To present the key results.
    C、To correspond to the Methods section.
    D、To focus on the questions or hypotheses raised in Introduction section.



3、What is the correct relation between table &figure and text?
    A、Tables and Figures should be understood associated with the text.
    B、Tables and Figures are to explain the text.
    C、Tables and Figures are to interpret the text.
    D、Tables and Figures should be understood alone.



4、When the sentence focuses on the completed study, _________ tense should be used.
    A、past
    B、present
    C、present perfect
    D、present continuous



5、_______ are usually used to present the data.
    A、Text
    B、Table
    C、Figure
    D、Picture



6、Effective reading of the Results and Discussion section involves identifying its structure and extracting relevant information. Read the following statements, and identify the information contained in these three parts, and match the statement of a, b, &c with1, 2, & 3 1. Limitations and how they were addressed 2. Key findings 3. Main results a. Consumption of black tea without milk caused nausea in three volunteers. (the 2nd sentence of Results) ———————— b. We found that severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome lost more weight in a six-month period on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a fat- and calorie-restricted diet (the 1st sentence of discussion) ———————— c. This study proves a principle and does not provide clinical guidance; given the known benefits of fat restriction, future studies evaluating long-term cardiovascular outcomes are needed before a carbohydrate-restricted diet can be endorsed (the last sentence of paragraph 7, Discussion) (填空格式:例如123)



7、2. Reorder the following six sentences from a Results section of a paper. You may refer to the three-step strategy in writing the Results above. a. Figure 6 shows the theoretical predictions for the nonlocal resistance signal as a function of gate voltage for samples Q2197, Q2198 and Q2398, respectively. b. These can be directly compared with the experimental plots of Figure 3-4. c. Clearly, the theoretical results not only show a very similar behaviour to the experimental resistance signal, but even have semiquantitative agreement. d. Furthermore, again in agreement with the experiment, the theoretically predicted signals are at least an order of magnitude stronger for the p-than for the n-regime, as a result of the much stronger difference in population of the valence band spin-orbit subbands. e. As in the experiment, we find in the calculations that Q2198 exhibits a larger signal than Q2197. f. We conclude that the numerical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results and confirm that the observed effect is indeed the ballistic ISHE. (填空格式:;例如abf)



Unit 7 The conclusioin

The conclusion随堂测验

1、The Conclusion should enable readers to reconsider the value of the study.



2、The focus of the Discussion is the interpretation of the results.



3、The Conclusion can either be independent or part of Discussion



4、The Conclusion can only take at most two paragraphs.



5、The present tense is used to summarize the work undertaken



Effective reading of the conclusion随堂测验

1、The Conclusion provides the most__________ analysis of the study findings.



2、The major __________ drawn from the main results should be evaluated



3、The _________ data or consistent data should both be evaluated



4、Considerations on how to overcome the __________ should also be presented.



5、The broader __________ of the study can be expected in Conclusion



Creating a strong scientific conclusion随堂测验

1、Most readers will only read the Conclusion first



2、Different types of scientific papers will require different types of Conclusion.



3、The function of the Conclusion is to restate the main argument



4、The study limitations should be avoided in the Conclusion



5、Suggestions for future study should be included in the Conclusion



Four steps to a strong scientific conclusion随堂测验

1、The value of the Conclusion is to demonstrate the writer’s ________ thinking skills.



2、This lecture introduces ________ writing strategy for the Conclusion



3、The Conclusion is expected to ________ the implications of the findings



4、The limitations of the study could be integrated into the ________.



5、________ is desirable but only if it can be achieved honestly and accurately.



'Don'ts' in writing a scientific conclusion随堂测验

1、Conclusions should be drawn based on the ________ evidence.



2、________ should be checked for logical expression.



3、________ language should be avoided



4、Don’t bring in ________ materials in the Conclusion.



Quiz for Unit 7

1、Which of the following can be included in a conclusion paragraph?
    A、Conclusions
    B、Contributions to your field of research
    C、Limitations of the study
    D、Future research direction



2、The purpose of a conclusion is to tie together, or integrate the various issues, research, etc., raised in the paper.



3、A conclusion paragraph usually provides a brief restatement of the purpose of the essay.



4、A conclusion paragraph usually states the conclusion with details.



5、A conclusion paragraph never indicates suggestions for future research.



6、A conclusion paragraph should bring in new materials or ideas.



7、The conclusion should be based on the points already raised.



8、Effective reading of a conclusion involves identifying its structure. Though different disciplines and journals may show slight differences in their requirements for the format of the conclusion, the major components are similar and presented in the same order. Read the following disordered statements and reorder them into a well-organized conclusion. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ A. The data generated by each are similar, but differ in scale and therefore support different applications. B. As sequencing costs continue to decrease, our studies of the microbial world can continue to increase in scope. More than a decade of research has supported a robust consensus: Acute stress impairs memory retrieval. C. Here we show that comparable data can be generated on the Miseq for smaller projects where it is important to process samples quickly, for example, in routine environmental or patient monitoring or in preliminary investigations for larger projects. D. The protocol presented here opens the Hiseq2000 and Miseq illumina platforms to community amplicon sequencing. E. For large projects where time is less of an issue but cost per sequence is a major concern, the Hiseq platform allows massively parallel sequencing at the lowest cost. F. We expect that this is another step toward the era of ubiquitous DNA sequencing, when sequencers become standard equipment in research and clinical laboratories. G. Finally, we show that technical replicates run on different sequencing platforms and from sequencing of different regions of amplicons should yield the same biological conclusions: critical information appears as more sequencing platforms become available. Descriptive Abstracts include: (输入对应的大写字母,按字母顺序,且字母中间没有标点符号或空格,如:ABCE)



Unit 8 Acknowledgements and references

Reading acknowledgements随堂测验

1、Which of the following refers to research contribution?
    A、Provision of facilities.
    B、Intellectual ideas and data access
    C、Technical and financial support.
    D、All the above.



2、Where is the Acknowledgements usually found in scientific paper?
    A、After the references.
    B、Before the references.
    C、After the results.
    D、Before the abstract.



3、Which of the following can be found in the Acknowledgements?
    A、Authors’ acceptance of any remain errors.
    B、Authors’ education background.
    C、Authors’ contribution.
    D、Thesis advisor’s background



4、The contributors are usually acknowledged in order of________.
    A、sequence
    B、alphabet
    C、importance
    D、none of the above.



5、Personal thanks to non-research contributors always come________.
    A、first
    B、last
    C、second
    D、third



Effective reading of acknowledgements随堂测验

1、Author’s gratitude to individuals or institutions for academic assistance could be read in the Acknowledgements.



2、Contributors are usually acknowledged collectively by name.



3、Author’s statement of responsibility for any errors are often read in the middle of this section.



4、Titles such as Doctor or Professor are usually used before the research contributor’s names.



5、Personal thanks to the author’s parents, siblings, spouse or children can be found at the end of this section.



Writing appropriate acknowledgements随堂测验

1、Acknowledgements should first be given to those offering academic help



2、Acknowledgements to people for their provision of equipment should last be given.



3、Family members should also be acknowledged for their moral support.



4、The acknowledgements in a scientific article should be short and implicit.



5、Specific rules for acknowledgements might differ among different journals.



Four steps to write appropriate acknowledgements随堂测验

1、Acknowledgement is to enable researchers to express their gratitude in print.



2、There is no standard format to write a scientific acknowledgement.



3、Contributors can be categorized into research contributors and non-research ones.



4、Acknowledgements should be started with thanks for individuals and ended with thanks for institutions.



5、The acceptance of remaining possible errors should be avoided.



Don'ts in writing acknowledgements随堂测验

1、The name of any individuals should be ensured of its ___________



2、When it comes to personal thanks to family members, strong___________ language should be avoided.



3、Acknowledgements should be presented in a concise and ___________ manner.



4、The word “wish” is usually considered as ___________ in the acknowledgements.



5、Be sure to obtain ___________ from anyone included in the acknowledgements.



Understanding references随堂测验

1、The numbers in the reference list must _________ to the citation numbers.



2、_________ is frequently used referencing style in the UK and Australia.



3、_________ is mainly used in psychology, anthropology and education.



4、The references gives due _________ to sources and guides readers can find more details.



5、References can prevent _________ and be a proof of the researchers’ work.



Effective reading of references随堂测验

1、Once having ________ the target reference entries, you can find the detailed publication information.



2、Read the last name of the author and identify the ________ reference entry by the last name in the reference list.



3、The author-year system presents the name of the author and the year in ________ after the in-text citation.



4、Scan the first paragraph to identify ________ system.



5、References enable readers to see where the writer depends on previous work and  ________ what is novel about his own study.



Effective paraphrase/summary随堂测验

1、Which of the following is NOT correct?
    A、paraphrase is almost as long as the original source with different words.
    B、A summary should be as short as a sentence.
    C、Paraphrase and summary are commonly used in scientific texts.
    D、A quotation is an exact copy of the original source.



2、Which of the following focuses on a single main idea?
    A、A prophase.
    B、A summary.
    C、A quotation.
    D、A conclusion.



3、If reporting verb argue is used, what judgment can be drawn?
    A、The author’s conclusion is not reliable or stable.
    B、The author’s conclusion is based on reasoning.
    C、The author is not sure about the conclusion.
    D、Other conclusions, except for the author’s conclusion, is impossible.



4、What of the following can present citations?
    A、Quotation.
    B、Paraphrase.
    C、Summary
    D、All the above.



5、Credit must be given to the sources to avoid __________
    A、copyright violation.
    B、repetitive researches.
    C、plagiarism.
    D、invalid experiment.



Using paraphrase/summary to write citations随堂测验

1、The points in the original text which writers want to introduce to their own writing should be __________.



2、Three strategies can be combined to produce a clear and accurate paragraph: using __________; changing the sentence order and changing the __________.



3、A suitable reporting __________ should be used to introduce the paraphrase or summary.



4、The __________ text should be carefully read until the full meaning is thoroughly understood.



Don'ts in writing paraphrase/summary随堂测验

1、Paraphrasing by just replacing words or phrases is called plagiarism.



2、Your own ideas or opinions can be included in paraphrasing.



3、Reference to the author of the original text in the paraphrase should be presented explicitly.



4、Relying heavily on paraphrase or summary in a scientific text will play down your ideas.



5、Summarizing means to reduce to others’ key points to a shorter form.



Quiz for unit 8

1、Which of the following contributors should not be included in the Acknowledgements for a scientific paper?
    A、those who provided scientific ideas or comments
    B、those who funded the research
    C、those who offered facilities/equipment
    D、those who gave moral support



2、Which of the following expressions is not appropriate for extending genuine gratitude in the sentence “I _______ Dr. John L. Wilson, the chair of my research committee, for his advice and support”?
    A、am thankful to
    B、am grateful to
    C、wish to thank
    D、would like to thank



3、Read the following passage. Judge whether the paraphrase of the passage is a good one. If not, what is the problem with it? Choose one from the four given choices that best describes the paraphrase. (Source: page 16 of a three-page article in the October 15, 2003, issue of Space Science magazine. The title of the article is “Manned Mars Flight: Impossible Dream?” The author is Patrick Clinton, a NASA physician.) The original passage Living aboard a space station in orbit around Earth for months at a time poses problems for astronauts’ bodies as well as for their minds. The paraphrase An article in Space Science magazine reports that lengthy space station duty may lead to physical and mental problems for astronauts (Clinton 16).
    A、good
    B、too similar
    C、no in-text citation
    D、incomplete and/or inaccurate information



4、Read the following passage. Judge whether the paraphrase of the passage is a good one. If not, what is the problem with it? Choose one from the four given choices that best describes the paraphrase. The original passage Living aboard a space station in orbit around Earth for months at a time poses problems for astronauts’ bodies as well as for their minds. (出处同上) The paraphrase An article in Space Science magazine reports that astronauts who live aboard space stations for long periods of time may experience physical as well as mental problems.
    A、good
    B、too similar
    C、no in-text citation
    D、incomplete and/or inaccurate information



5、Read the following passage. Judge whether the paraphrase of the passage is a good one. If not, what is the problem with it? Choose one from the four given choices that best describes the paraphrase. The original passage Living aboard a space station in orbit around Earth for months at a time poses problems for astronauts’ bodies as well as for their minds. (出处同上) The paraphrase An article in Space Science reports that living in a space station orbiting Earth for a long time can cause difficulties for astronauts’ bodies and minds (Clinton 16).
    A、good
    B、too similar
    C、no in-text citation
    D、incomplete and/or inaccurate information



6、Read the following passage. Judge whether the paraphrase of the passage is a good one. If not, what is the problem with it? Choose one from the four given choices that best describes the paraphrase. The original passage Living aboard a space station in orbit around Earth for months at a time poses problems for astronauts’ bodies as well as for their minds. (出处同上) The paraphrase An article in Space Science reports that astronauts will become physically sick and have mental problems if they visit a space station (Clinton 16).
    A、good
    B、too similar
    C、no in-text citation
    D、incomplete and/or inaccurate information



7、The author can combine existing referencing styles in a scientific paper.



8、Among the common documentation styles, APA style is more popular than MLA style and Chicago style.



9、The IEEE style is widely used in Engineering and ACS style in Chemistry.



10、In both the author-year system and the alphabet-number system, the reference list is organized in alphabetical order by the last name of the author(s).



11、The Acknowledgements provides the author with the opportunity to express his sincere gratitude to those who have offered academic assistance, resources and moral support. Put the following disordered Acknowledgements into a logical one. A In particular I would like to thank Michael White for the suggestions he made in reference to Chapter 4 of this work. B I would also like to thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, not only for providing the funding which allowed me to undertake this research, but also for giving me the opportunity to attend conferences and meet so many interesting people. C I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Prof. Nicholas Young, for the patient guidance, encouragement and advice he has provided throughout my time as his student. D Finally, I must express my gratitude to Karina, my wife, for her continued support and encouragement. E I have been extremely lucky to have a supervisor who cared so much about my work, and who responded to my questions and queries so promptly. F Besides my supervisor, I am grateful to all the members of staff at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities who helped me in my supervisor’s absence. G I was continually amazed by her willingness to proof read countless pages of meaningless mathematics, and by the patience of my mother, father and brother who experienced all of the ups and downs of my research. _____-_____-_____-_____-_____-_____-_____



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